What is Brain Trauma?
The most common cause of traumatic brain damage is a severe blow or jolt to the head or body. Traumatic brain damage may also result from an item passing through brain tissue, such as a gunshot or fractured piece of the skull.
Your brain cells might suffer a brief effect from mild traumatic brain damage. A more severe traumatic brain injury may cause tissue damage, bleeding, bruises, and other physical harm to the brain. These wounds may lead to long-term problems or even death.
What Causes Brain Trauma
The following situations often result in traumatic brain injury:
- Falls: The most frequent cause of traumatic brain injury is falling — from downstairs, a bed or ladder, and others.
- Collisions caused by vehicles: TBI is often caused by collisions involving motorbikes, cars, or bicycles, as well as pedestrians engaged in such incidents.
- Violence: The most frequent causes include domestic violence, child abuse, and other types of assault. Traumatic brain damage brought on by forceful shaking in neonates is known as a shaken baby syndrome.
- A sports injury: Numerous sports, such as football, boxing, skateboarding, hockey, baseball, and other high-impact or intense activities, may result in traumatic brain injury. These are especially prevalent among young people.
- Explosions and other types of combat injuries: Military members currently on active service often get traumatic brain injuries from explosives. Many experts think that the pressure wave going through the brain severely impairs brain function, even if it is unclear how the injury occurs.
Early Symptoms of Brain Trauma
Depending on the severity of the damage, TBI symptoms might vary. Loss of consciousness (passing out) after a blow is a crucial indicator. Some individuals experience temporary dizziness while others remain unresponsive for extended periods (coma or persistent vegetative state).
TBI symptoms include:
- Changes in mood or behavior
- Confusion or issues with memory
- Seizures or convulsions
- Blurry eyesight or dilated pupils
- Tiredness, dizziness, or fainting
- Vomiting and nauseous
- Anxiety or restlessness
- Light and smell sensitivity
- Sleeping excessively or insufficiently
- Sluggish speech
Children and infants with TBIs may also:
- Be unable to console and cry continuously
- Avoid eating, drinking, or breastfeeding
What Happens after Brain Trauma?
The effects of trauma on the brain are not often immediately apparent.
- Unpleasant memories: A traumatic experience may trigger flashbacks, leading to a physical stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder. The primary cause is that your brain may continue to secrete stress hormones long after a traumatic incident.
This causes you to relive the distressing event again. The hippocampus, the organ in charge of remembering and feeling emotions, might shrink if stress hormones are constantly secreted.
- Loss of emotional stability: The amygdala goes into overdrive in response to traumatic experiences. Here, the parts of the brain responsible for generating original ideas, instinctual reactions, and subjective feelings all come together.
When the amygdala is overstimulated, the brain may force the person to experience the traumatic event as if it were occurring for the first time. You may get overwhelmed by the increased sensory overload, leading to a flood of unfavorable thoughts and trouble managing emotions.
- Differentiate the past from the present: The amygdala’s increased activity inhibits the prefrontal cortex. This suggests that a person’s ability to regulate their fear after experiencing trauma may decrease, perhaps leaving them in a condition of perpetual reaction. Your capacity to remember the past and make sense of the present may suffer if you’ve just experienced a distressing incident that stressed you out.
Does the Brain Heal Itself?
In reaction to mental events, the brain has a remarkable capacity for self-healing and adaptation. In terms of your understanding of the brain, this process—known as neuroplasticity—is recognized as one of the most important developments in modern science. It has been shown via research on people with serious brain injuries that have left them with various cognitive issues related to disability or blindness.
Some individuals who have had a stroke or other brain damage gradually become better at tasks like solving puzzles. This improvement, known as neurological recovery, results from developing new nerve cells and modifying existing neurons. Researchers have showcased that this development may enhance cognitive abilities. This includes thinking, memory, language, and judgment. In other words, the brain can make an amazing recovery if given sufficient time.
Is Consulting a Doctor Necessary
If you or your child has suffered a hit to the head or body and it causes you to worry or a behavior change, you should visit a doctor immediately. You should seek immediate medical attention if you have any signs or symptoms of traumatic brain damage.
The impact of the lesion on brain function is categorized as mild, modest, and intense. Even minor brain damage requires early medical treatment and an accurate diagnosis since it is a severe injury.
Dr. Eshan Nerkar
Neurologist And NeurosuegeonDr. Eshan Nerkar, Consultant Brain & Spine Surgeon in Nashik specializes in Spine Surgery. He practices at AXON Brain & Spine Clinic. He is one of the best neurosurgeons in Nashik with more than 10 years of experience. He has performed more than 1000 surgeries related to brain and spinal surgery procedures.