What are brain tumors?
A brain tumor is a collection of unusual cells in your brain that develops out of control. The cells in certain brain tumors are benign, meaning they aren’t cancerous. Others are cancerous, which means they are malignant.
If a brain tumor begins in the brain, it is referred to as a primary tumor. They’re classified as secondary if they begin elsewhere in your body and progress to your brain.
What are the early warning signs and symptoms of a brain tumor?
The following are the most prevalent early warning signs and symptoms of brain tumors:
- A slowing or disappearance of feeling or movement in an arm or a leg
- Behavioral or personality changes
- Changes in mood or concentration abilities
- Confusion in day-to-day activities
- Having difficulty balancing or walking
- Headaches with new-onset or a different pattern
- Increasing frequency and severity of headaches throughout time
- Issues with one’s ability to remember things
- Morning headaches
- Muscle twitching or jerking
- Speech, vision, or hearing changes
- Tingling or numbness in the arms or legs
- Vomiting and nausea for no apparent cause
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What are the common types and grades for primary brain tumors?
Primary brain tumors come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Primary brain tumors are called by the sort of cells that form them or the portion of the brain where they start. Glial cells, for example, are the origin of most primary brain cancers. So glioma is the name for this sort of tumor.
The following are the most prevalent forms among adults:
- Astrocytoma: Astrocytes, which are star-shaped glial cells, cause the tumor. It doesn’t matter what grade it is. The most common location for an astrocytoma in adults is the cerebrum.
- Grade I or II astrocytoma: It’s known as a low-grade glioma.
- Grade III astrocytoma: It’s also known as a high-grade astrocytoma or an anaplastic astrocytoma.
- Grade IV astrocytoma: Glioblastoma or malignant astrocytic glioma are two terms for the same thing.
- Meningioma: The tumor starts in the meninges and spreads throughout the body. It might be in the first, second, or third grade. It’s normally noncancerous (grade I) and has a modest growth rate.
- Oligodendroglioma: Cells that generate the fatty material that coats and protects nerves give birth to the tumor. It is most often seen in the cerebrum. It’s most frequent among individuals in their forties and fifties. It might be a grade II or a grade III.
The following are the most prevalent forms and stages of brain tumors in children:
- Medulloblastoma: The tumor is most often seen in the cerebellum. A primitive neuroectodermal tumor is another name for it. It is a fourth-grade level.
- Grade I or II astrocytoma: This low-grade tumor may develop anywhere in the brain in youngsters. Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma is the most frequent kind of astrocytoma in children. But, again, it’s a first-grade.
- Ependymoma: Cells that border the ventricles or the central canal of the spinal cord give birth to the tumor. Children and young adults are the most typically affected. It might be in the first, second, or third grade.
- Brain stem glioma: The tumor is located at the base of the brain. A tumor might be low-grade or high-grade. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is the most prevalent kind.
The following symptoms may accompany various forms of brain tumors, depending on where the tumor is located in the brain:
Headaches that wake the patient up in the morning or keep them up at night
Convulsions or seizures
- Thinking, speaking, or communicating difficulties
- Changes in personality
- One side or one section of the body is weak or paralyzed
- Dizziness or loss of balance
- Changes in vision
- Changes in hearing
- Numbness or tingling in the face
- Nausea or vomiting, difficulty swallowing
- Disorientation and confusion
The following are some of the treatment options:
- Surgery: Neurosurgeons attempt to eliminate the tumor whenever possible. To avoid damage to functioning portions of your brain, they operate extremely cautiously, sometimes doing surgery while you’re awake (you won’t experience pain).
- Radiation therapy: In this sort of therapy, high doses of X-rays are used to kill brain tumor cells or shrink the tumor.
- Radiosurgery: This is a form of radiation treatment that destroys a tumor using highly concentrated radiation beams (gamma rays or proton beams). Because no incision is required, it is not considered surgery.
- Chemotherapy: Anticancer medications are used in this treatment to eliminate cancer cells in the brain and throughout the body. Chemotherapy may be given via an injection into a vein or taken as a tablet.
- Targeted therapy: Drugs used in this therapy target particular traits in cancer cells while causing no damage to healthy cells. If you have problems with the adverse effects of chemotherapy, such as tiredness and nausea, your healthcare professional may offer targeted treatment.
Can brain tumors cure permanently?
Brain tumors may be treated if the correct therapy is used. That isn’t to say that every brain tumor will be treated. Unfortunately, preventing brain tumors from worsening might be challenging.
The prognosis for a malignant brain tumor is determined by several variables, including the tumor’s location in the brain, its size, and its medical grade.
There is a far higher possibility of treating a brain tumor if detected early on. Brain tumors that have been effectively treated might, however, recur.
Recovery and after effects
It is fairly uncommon to feel worse after surgery or therapy for a brain tumor. However, even though this is just transitory, it may be discouraging.
Your body has a lot to deal with after brain surgery. In addition, because the swelling in the brain occurs after surgery, it will take some time for you to see the benefits of having your tumor eliminated.
For some, recovery may be complete within a few weeks or months; for others, you may need to learn to adapt and maintain persistent changes in your life, such as being unable to work or perform all of the duties you previously did.
Dr. Eshan Nerkar
Neurologist And NeurosuegeonDr. Eshan Nerkar, Consultant Brain & Spine Surgeon in Nashik specializes in Spine Surgery. He practices at AXON Brain & Spine Clinic. He is one of the best neurosurgeons in Nashik with more than 10 years of experience. He has performed more than 1000 surgeries related to brain and spinal surgery procedures.