Symptoms, causes and treatment options of migraine

Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Migraine

When someone has a headache, they may feel a throbbing, constant, severe, or mild pressure in their head or face. The most common kind of headache is tension headache.


There is a wide range in the nature, severity, location, and frequency of pain. While most headaches are harmless, certain types may be warning signs of severe diseases. Headaches may be divided into two main categories: primary and secondary.

Primary Headache

When pain-sensitive brain areas are faulty or overactive, a primary headache results. They are neither a symptom nor a cause of any underlying health problem. There is some evidence that genetics have a role in who has primary headaches. The several major headache types include:


  • Tension-type headaches 

  • Migraine headaches

  • Cluster headaches


A throbbing, pounding headache on one side of the head is the primary symptom of migraine, a frequent neurological disorder. You might expect to worsen your migraine symptoms if you expose yourself to physical effort, bright lights, loud sounds, or strong scents. The attack might last anywhere from four to seventy-two hours. These headaches might vary from relatively moderate to debilitating.

Symptoms of Migraine

Migraine headaches are characterized by severe pain in the head. Beginning as dull aching, the discomfort may eventually intensify into a pulsating sensation ranging from mild to severe. Your moderate to severe headache can worsen if you don’t have it checked out.


Headaches may radiate from one side to the other, from the front to the rear, or even across the whole head. Sometimes patients have discomfort in the area around their eyes or temples, and other times it spreads to their face, sinuses, jaw, or neck.


Additionally, migraine headaches may cause these additional symptoms:


  • Light, odor, and sound sensitivity

  • Weakness, dizziness, fatigue

  • Nausea, vomiting, and stomach discomfort

  • Difficulty focusing 

  • Lack of ability to fall asleep

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Causes of Migraine

Several causes may cause migraine attacks, including:


  • Stress: Migraine headaches are often triggered by emotional stress. Certain chemicals in the brain are produced to cope with stressful situations. The release of these substances might bring on a migraine. 

  • Sensitivity to certain dietary additives and preservatives: Certain foods and drinks may trigger migraines. These include aged cheese, alcoholic beverages, chocolate, food additives like nitrates, and fermented or pickled foods.

  • Caffeine: A painful headache can result when the body’s caffeine supply suddenly runs out, as may happen with both overuse and withdrawal. You may develop a sensitivity to caffeine in your blood vessels, leading to headaches if you suddenly cut down or stop drinking coffee. 

  • Daily usage of pain-relieving medicines: If you use pain relievers for headaches too often, you may have rebound headaches.

  • Changes in hormones: Women often suffer from migraines throughout their menstrual cycles. Migraines are sometimes brought on by the same sudden reduction in oestrogen that brings on menstruation. Since these oestrogen variations often don’t appear in young girls and post-menopausal women, migraines tend to worsen between puberty and menopause. 

  • Light: You may be easily startled by several light sources, such as the sun, TV, computer monitors, or fluorescent bulbs.

Remedies for migraine

Following are some remedies that can help with migraine:


  • Avoid foods, odors, and situations that trigger your migraine episodes

  • Drink plenty of water 

  • Don’t skip meals

  • Prioritize getting good sleep 

  • Give up smoking

  • Reduce your stress levels


People who often get migraine headaches may find themselves unable to take part in regular activities like going to work or school. In addition to avoiding or lessening the intensity of migraine attacks, there are additional actions you may take to manage better the pain they cause. If you want help controlling your migraines, go to your doctor.

About Author

Dr. Eshan Nerkar

Neurologist And Neurosuegeon

Dr. Eshan Nerkar, Consultant Brain & Spine Surgeon in Nashik specializes in Spine Surgery. He practices at AXON Brain & Spine Clinic. He is one of the best neurosurgeons in Nashik with more than 10 years of experience. He has performed more than 1000 surgeries related to brain and spinal surgery procedures.

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